Tag Archives: port address translation

Extending AWS NAT instance utilization – Part 1

For those of us who have been through setting up VPC(Virtual Private Cloud) in AWS know the need to have a NAT instance running. Since we have to keep this instance running as long we need the easy internet access from instances running in Private subnets, had always wondered how else can this instance be utilized. In reality these NAT instance are doing a outward Port Address Translation from internal Private Subnet instances to external Internet.

Typical NAT Server in AWS:



While, there are those who may argue that the NAT instance better be left alone, we believe there are ways to extend the abilities without noticeable impact of the primary utility. Typically, NAT instance that is provisioned using AWS wizard allows you to choose between small / medium instance types. After providing for the need for the Internet access for your private subnet instances (read in most typical use cases), there is enough time cycles which we can take advantage off.

Note: In addition to above, as we know NAT instance will have an Elastic IP assigned (VPC type), which is a scarce resource (limited to 5 by default, and you need to request for more to Amazon). This gives one more reason to utilize an instance with EIP(Elastic IP) to best use.

Let us see a few of them which we were able to successfully harness, to our clients and for our needs here at CloudKinetics.

Extension-1: PAT (Inward Tunnel): enable access to specific port – instance in Private subnet from Internet

At first it seems appalling to have a direct access to an instance running in Private subnet from internet (as the very purpose of Private subnet is to avoid direct access from internet), it is not uncommon to this scenario, when you have VPC but no VPN configured and say a DB Server running in the private subnet. 

In the above scenario, if we need to access the DB Server(in Private Subnet with in VPC) from a Toad or other SQL clients from the enterprise / home network to quickly do a sql query, then we need a direct access. Alternative would be to run such clients from with in another instance with in the VPC. Nevertheless it is always convenient to run those from our own laptop / desktop from work. Though we want to enable to this access, but need to ensure it is restricted to only this instance and to a specific port and from a specific external IP(or range of IPs).

Let us assume we have an Oracle on RHEL running in our VPC in the Private Subnet, which is primarily accessed by other Application instance inside VPC.  If you have need to run some porting scripts or intializing DDL scripts from the client, need to have access to Oracle running in Private subnet (say 10.0.1.*) open port 1532 @ from Enterprise public IP (xxx.xxx.xxx.110)

It is a three-step process,

a) Getting the IPTABLES update command ready

b) Updating the IPTABLES service in NAT configuration to ensure retaining configuration after restart.

c) Open the required port in the NAT Server SecurityGroup

By Default the AWS NAT ami implements the Outward PAT ability through IPTABLES service. The configurations to the service are updated on startup from /usr/local/sbin/configure-pat.sh

Edit this file as root and find the line as below

/sbin/iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -s ${VPC_CIDR_RANGE} -j MASQUERADE

Update to look as below to include the additional two lines for allowing the access from external internet to Db Server ( 1532).

 /sbin/iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -s ${VPC_CIDR_RANGE} -j MASQUERADE && \
 /sbin/iptables -A PREROUTING -t nat -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 51532 -j DNAT --to && \
 /sbin/iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -d --dport 1532 -j ACCEPT

Please take care to add the “&& \” to the existing MASQUERADE command line.


Now, time to reboot the server. With the above step we have configured the port 51532 in the NAT Server to be open to Internet, which in turn will do a Port Address Translation to send it to port 1532 of the local VPC Private subnet instance

To restrict and open the access from our Enterprise IP Address to the NAT Server on port 51352, need to configure the NATServerGroup (or the Security Group assigned to NAT Server) as below.


That is it, we have now enabled the NATServer to do an inward Port Address Translation. We can extend this to other instances / ports as required.  Also the above steps can be automated by using simple shell scripts.



IP Tables: http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/index.php/Quick_HOWTO_:_Ch14_:_Linux_Firewalls_Using_iptables

In the next parts we will cover other possible extensions, as listed below:

Part 2 on Extension-2: NFS (Network File Storage) – Shared drive for VPC instances (and Enterprise)

Part 3 on Extension-3: SFTP Server for File upload